Center facet =

One facet must be non-centered in most analyses. Center= specifies which facets are to be centered, so that the mean of the element measures is zero (or Umean=). Other facets are non-centered, unless they are anchored or group-anchored. If both Center= and Noncenter= and Center= are specified, only the first encountered in the specification file is actioned. When any element within a facet is anchored, or group-anchored, then the origin of the scale for that facet is set by the anchoring. Both Center= and Noncenter= are ignored for that facet.


a)Center= facet number, facet number, ...
a mean element measure of zero (or Umean=) for element measures with non-extreme scores
Example: Center= 2, 3, 4

b)Center= facet number Z, facet number Z, ...
a mean element measure of zero (or Umean=) for all element measures, including extreme scores
Example: Center= 2Z, 3Z, 4Z

c)Center= facet number, facet number Z, ...
a combination of (a) and (b)
Example: Center= 2, 3Z, 4

Extreme measures (corresponding to minimum and maximum possible scores) are included in the Means in Table 7, so that these may not be 0  (or Umean=) for centered facets unless: Center= facet number Z


In most analyses, if all facets are centered or anchored, then the estimates are over-constrained and displacements are reported. If more than one facet is non-centered, the frame of reference is not sufficiently constrained and the element measures are ambiguous (non-identified). The usual convention is to center the frame of reference on the agents of measurement: items, tasks, judges. This establishes the origin. Then the objects of measurement, persons, are positioned with respect to this origin. Technically, centering is an identifiability constraint, so that the estimates are uniquely defined.


Example 1: facets 2 (items) and 3 (raters) are to be centered; facet 1 is non-centered.

Center= 2, 3 ; non-extreme element measures are centered in facets 2 and 3.

Center= 2Z, 3Z ; all element measures are centered in facets 2 and 3

Center= 2, 3Z ; non-extreme element measures are centered for facet 2; all element measures are centered for facet 3


Example 2: No facets are to be centered. This is an unusual situation such as when there is only one active facet so that the item difficulties are defined relative to an implicit origin as in the "Three Mile Island" example.


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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups


Coming Rasch-related Events
April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs. Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY,
April 13-17, 2018, Fri.-Tues. AERA, New York, NY,
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz),
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France.,
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences"
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs. IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),


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