Yardstick (columns lines low high extreme) =

Adjusts the layout of the vertical rulers in Table 6. This instruction helps make the "vertical rulers" more useful. Several ruler sizes can be specified in the same run. Use the Output Tables menu to experiment with different settings. Vertical= controls which facets are reported in Table 6.


Yardstick = Horizontal columns , Vertical lines, Low range, High range, {"Measure" or "End"}

Horizontal columns

maximum width of vertical ruler display in columns.

Default: 0 means as wide as needed.

Vertical lines

number of lines or rows per logit (or per Umean= user-scaled unit).

This can be decimal, e.g., 0.5 vertical lines for each logit (or user-scaled unit).

Default: 0 makes the rulers about 50 lines long, regardless of logit range.

Low range

lowest measure to show on rulers.

Default: 0

High range

highest measure to show on rulers.

Default: 0 If low range = high range, then the range is set by the element measures.

Placement of Extreme scores

"Measure": position the elements with extreme scores according to their estimated measures

"Ends": position the elements with extreme scores at the ends of the rulers

Default: "Ends"


Unspecified values take their standard values or are calculated from the estimated measures.


Example:Generate a large vertical ruler display, to be used for display:



Multiple copies of the vertical rulers, with different dimensions, can be generated using parentheses:

Yardstick = (Horizontal columns , Vertical lines, Low, High, Extreme),(H,V,L,H,E),(H,V,L,H,E),...

where each set (H,V,L,H,E) cause the generation of another set of rulers with the corresponding Horizontal column and Vertical lines and range specifications.


Example:Generate two versions of Table 6, a standard and a compact ruler display:

Yardstick = (80,5,-3,4),(40,4)

(80,5,-3,4) 80 columns wide with 5 rows per logit, for the range -3 to +4 logits.

(40,4) 40 columns wide with 4 rows per logit. The range is matched to the measures.

This produces two sets of "rulers". The second is:


Vertical = (1A,2A,3A,#S) Yardstick (columns,lines,low,high,extreme)= 40,4,-1,1,Ends


|Measr|+Senior sci|+Junior |+Traits     |


+   1 +           +        +            +

|     |           |        |            |

|     |           | Betty  |            |

|     | Cavendish | Edward | Attack     |

:     :           : George : Daring     :

*   0 * Avogadro  *        * Basis      *

:     : Brahe     :        :            :

|     | Davey     | Anne   | Clarity    |

:     :           : Chris  :            :

:     :           : David  :            :

|     |           | Fred   | Enthusiasm |

|     |           |        |            |

+  -1 +           +        +            +


|Measr|+Senior sci|+Junior |+Traits     |



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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
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May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz), https://ealta2018.testdaf.de
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