Zscore minimum for reported bias terms (bias size/t-statistic value) = 0, 0
Bias analysis calculates a bias measure, reported in Table 13 and Table 14, based on the data for which the elements include one from each of the facets specified. Most bias measures are small in logit size and statistically insignificant. This specification is a selection filter for which terms to report. The first control parameter places a lower limit on the absolute logit (in logits or user-units if user-scaled) of the bias measures to report. Thus, to report only bias measures that are outside of or equal to ±1 logit,
Zscore = 1 ; 1 logit
The second control parameter places a lower limit on the absolute value of the bias t-statistics to report. The t-statistic is obtained by dividing the bias measure by its standard error. With more than 30 observations, a t-statistic is approximately normally distributed, i.e., a z-statistic. To report only bias measures which have t-statistic outside of or equal to ±2:
Zscore = , 2 ; Leading comma, then 2 t-statistic units for bias control
To report bias measures which are either large in logits or significant statistically or both, specify both control parameters:
Zscore = 1,2 ; 1 logit or 2 t-statistic units
To report all bias measures:
Zscore= 0,0 ; include everything
Historical note: Facets used to assume that bias terms have approximately infinite degrees of freedom. Consequently they were reported as t-statistics with infinite degrees of freedom. These have the form of a unit-normal distribution, which is the same distribution as z-scores. Facets now reports bias significance using t-statistics with more exact finite degrees of freedom.
For reporting purposes, the absolute value of the t-statistic is compared with the specified second value in Zscore = bias-size, t-statistic value.
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|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
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|Coming Winsteps & Facets Events|
|May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur.||EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz), https://ealta2018.testdaf.de|
|May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France., https://measurement2018.sciencesconf.org|
|June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences" www.promsociety.org|
|Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
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