IREFER= identifying items for recoding (with IVALUE=)

Responses are revalued according to the matching codes in IVALUE=. If this implies that the items may have different rating (or partial credit) scale structures, so ISGROUPS= may also be required.

 

IREFER= *file name

file containing details

IREFER = *

in-line list

IREFER = codes

codes for item groups

 

IREFER= has three forms: IREFER=AABBCDAAD and IREFER=* list * and IREFER=*filename

 

Valid one-character IREFER= codes include: !#$%&-./123456789<>@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ^_|~

 

A-Z are the same as a-z.

 

Characters with ASCII codes from 129-255 can also be used, but display peculiarly: ÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖ×ØÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâã etc.

 

When XWIDE=2 or more, then

either (a) Use one character per XWIDE and blanks,

  NI=8

  XWIDE=2

  IREFER=' A B C D D C B A'

 

or (b) Use one character per item with no blanks

  NI=8

  XWIDE=2

  RESCORE='ABCDDCBA'

 

Item identifying codes can be letters or numbers. "A" is the same as "a", etc.

 

Example 1. There are 3 item types. Items are to rescored according to Type A and Type B. Other items to keep original scoring.

 CODES = 1234

 IREFER = AAAAAAAABBBBBBBB******* 3 item types: ("a" is the same as "A" in these codes)

 IVALUEA = 1223  Recode Type A items

 IVALUEB = 1123  Recode Type B items

 IVALUE* = 1234  Recode Type * item. Can be omitted

 

or

 IREFER=*

 1-8 A

 9-16 B

 17-23 *

 *

or

 IREFER=*filename.txt

 

in filename.txt:

 1-8 A

 9-16 B

 17-23 *

 

Example 2. There are 3 item types. Responses are 2 characters wide. Items are to rescored according to Type A and Type B. Other items to keep original scoring.

 XWIDE=2

 CODES = '1 2 3 4 '

 IREFER = AAAAAAAABBBBBBBB******* 3 item types

 IVALUEA = '1 2 2 3 '  Recode Type A items

 IVALUEB = '1 1 2 3 '  Recode Type B items

 IVALUE* = 1234  Recode Type * item. Can be omitted

 

Example 3: All items are to be rescored the same way

NI = 100   100 ITEMS

IREFER=*

1-100 X   FOR ALL 100 ITEMS, reference is X

*

Codes = 12345  rescore 12345

IVALUEX = 12223  into 12223

 

Example 4: Items are to be rescored in 3 different ways, forward scoring, reversed scoring and dichotomized scoring. Then the items are to be divided into 4 rating scale structures.

ISGROUPS=11112223312444 ; 4 RATING SCALE GROUPINGS

IREFER  =AAAABBBCCABBBB ; 3 RECODINGS

CODES   =01234 ; ORIGINAL CODES IN DATA

IVALUEA =01234 ; ORIGINAL CODING MAINTAINED - THIS LINE CAN BE OMITTED

IVALUEB =43210 ; CODING IS REVERSED

IVALUEC =*112* ; DICHOTOMIZED WITH EXTREME CATEGORIES MARKED MISSING

 

Example 5: Multiple-choice test with 4 options, ABCD

IREFER=ABCDDABADCDA ; SCORING KEY

CODES  =ABCD  ; VALID DATA CODES

IVALUEA=1000  ; A SCORED 1

IVALUEB=0100  ; B SCORED 1

IVALUEC=0010  ; C SCORED 1

IVALUED=0001  ; D SCORED 1

MISSCORE=0  ; EVERYTHING ELSE IN THE DATA SCORED 0

 

Example 6: A 10 item multiple choice test with 4 partial credit performance items scores 0,1,2,3.

NI = 14   ; 14 items

;        12345678901234

ISGROUPS=DDDDDDDDDD0000 ; 10 Dichotomies in Group "D". 4 Partial Credit items each in its own group "0"

IREFER  =ABCDDABADC1111 ; ITEM REFERENCE FOR THE 14 ITEMS

CODES  =ABCD0123  ; VALID DATA CODES

IVALUEA=10000000  ; A SCORED 1

IVALUEB=01000000  ; B SCORED 1

IVALUEC=00100000  ; C SCORED 1

IVALUED=00010000  ; D SCORED 1

IVALUE1=00000123  ; PERFORMANCE ITEMS: 0,1,2,3

MISSING-SCORED=0  ; EVERYTHING ELSE IN THE DATA SCORED 0

 

Example 7: Partial credit items are to be rescored:

IREFER = ABCAAB ; there are six items items 1, 4 and 5 have one rescoring. Items 2 and 6 another rescoring. Item 3 a third rescoring
CODES = 1234 ; the original scoring
IVALUEA = 1123 ; the new scoring for A-type items
IVALUEB = 1334 ; for B-type items
IVALUEC = 1234 ; original scoring maintained
 
Now there is a decision:
does 134 mean the same as 123, so that 2 is a structural zero, if so STKEEP=NO
does 134 mean the same as 1(2)34, so that 2 is an incidental or sampling zero, if so STKEEP=YES


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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
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Coming Rasch-related Events
Jan. 5 - Feb. 2, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
Jan. 10-16, 2018, Wed.-Tues. In-person workshop: Advanced Course in Rasch Measurement Theory and the application of RUMM2030, Perth, Australia (D. Andrich), Announcement
Jan. 17-19, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Rasch Conference: Seventh International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement, Matilda Bay Club, Perth, Australia, Website
Jan. 22-24, 2018, Mon-Wed. In-person workshop: Rasch Measurement for Everybody en español (A. Tristan, Winsteps), San Luis Potosi, Mexico. www.ieia.com.mx
April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs. Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY, www.iomw.org
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May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz), https://ealta2018.testdaf.de
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France., https://measurement2018.sciencesconf.org
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences" www.promsociety.org
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com
Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs. IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland www.imeko2018.org
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com

 

 

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