RESCORE= response recoding (with NEWSCORE= or KEYn=)

The responses in your data file may not be coded as you desire. The responses to some or all of the items can be rescored or keyed using RESCORE=. RESCORE= and NEWSCORE= are ignored when KEYn= is specified, except as below.  If rescoring implies that the items have different rating (or partial credit) scale structures, ISGROUPS= may also be required.


RESCORE= *file name

file containing details


in-line list

RESCORE = codes

codes for item groups


RESCORE= has three forms: RESCORE=1101110 and RESCORE=* list * and RESCORE=*filename


RESCORE=" " or 2 or is omitted

All items are recoded using NEWSCORE=. RESCORE=2 is the standard when NEWSCORE= is specified.


RESCORE= some combination of 1's and 0's

Only items corresponding to 1's are recoded with NEWSCORE= or scored with KEYn=. When KEYn is specified, NEWSCORE= is ignored.


If some, but not all, items are to be recoded or keyed, assign a character string to RESCORE= in which "1" means "recode (key) the item", and "0" (or blank) means "do not recode (key) the item". The position of the "0" or "1" in the RESCORE= string must match the position of the item-response in the item-string.


When XWIDE=2 or more, then

either (a) Use one character per XWIDE and blanks,



 RESCORE=' 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1'

or (b) Use one character per item with no blanks





Example 1: The original codes are "0" and "1". You want to reverse these codes, i.e., 1 0 and 0 1, for all items.

  XWIDE=1  one character wide responses (the standard)

  CODES =01  valid response codes are 0 and 1 (the standard)

  NEWSCORE=10  desired response scoring

  RESCORE=2  rescore all items - this line can be omitted


Example 2: Your data is coded "0" and "1". This is correct for all 10 items except for items 1 and 7 which have the reverse meaning, i.e. 1 0 and 0 1.

  NI=10  ten items

  CODES =01  standard, shown here for clarity


(a) old method - which still works:

  NEWSCORE=10  revised scoring

  RESCORE=1000001000 only for items 1 and 7





  1 1  item 1 is to be rescored

  7 1  item 7 is to be rescored



(b) new method - recommended:

  IVALUE1 =10  revised scoring

  IVALUE0 =01  scoring unchanged, so this line can be omitted.

  IREFER   =1000001000 only for items 1 and 7


If XWIDE=2, use one or two columns per RESCORE= code, e.g., " 1" or "1 " mean recode (key). " 0" or "0 " mean do not recode (key).


Example 3: The original codes are " 0" and " 1". You want to reverse these codes, i.e., 1 0 and 0 1, for items 1 and 7 of a ten item test.

  NI    =10   ; ten items

  XWIDE =2   ; two characters wide

  CODES   =" 0 1"  ; original codes

  NEWSCORE=" 1 0"  ; new values

  RESCORE =" 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0" ; rescore items 1 & 7


Example 4: The original codes are "0", "1", and "2". You want 0 0, 1 1, and 2 1 for all items

  XWIDE=1  one character wide (standard)

  CODES =012  valid codes

  NEWSCORE=011 desired scoring


Example 5: The original codes are "0", "1", and "2". You want to make 0 2, 1 1, and 2 0, for even-numbered items in a twenty item test.

  NI=20    twenty items

  CODES =012   three valid codes

  NEWSCORE=210  desired scoring

  RESCORE=01010101010101010101 rescore "even" items


Example 6: The original codes are "0", "1", "2", "3" and some others. You want to make all non-specified codes into "0", but to treat codes of "2" as missing.

  CODES = 0123  four valid codes

  NEWSCORE= 01X3 response code 2 will be ignored

  MISSCORE=0  treat all invalid codes as 0


Example 7: The original codes are "0", "1", "2", "3". You want to rescore some items selectively using KEY1= and KEY2= and to leave the others unchanged - their data codes will be their rating values. For items 5 and 6, 0 0, 1 0, 2 1, 3 2; for item 7, 0 0, 1 0, 2 0, 3 1. Responses to other items are already entered correctly as 0, 1, 2, or 3.

  CODES =0123 valid codes

  RESCORE=0000111000 rescore items 5,6,7

  KEY1  =****223*** keyed for selected items

  KEY2  =****33X*** the X will be ignored

    ^ read these columns vertically


Example 8: Multiple score key for items 1 to 10. Items 11 to 15 are on a rating scale of 1 to 5


  CODES  = abcd12345

  KEY1   = bacdbaddcd*****

  RESCORE= 111111111100000 ; RESCORE= signals when to apply KEY1=

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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
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