Rules of assigning values to control variables (key-words)

Do not worry about these unless Winsteps does not respond to your control file the way you expected. If possible, compare your control file with what is shown in Table 0 of your report output file in order to isolate the problem.


1. Values are assigned to control variables by typing the name of the control variable (or enough of it to disambiguate it), an equal sign, "=", and the value, e.g.



TAB=1101101110   this is enough of TABLES to make clear what you mean.


2. You must use one line for each assignment, but continuation lines are permitted.

To continue a line, put a + at the end of the line. Then put a + at the start of the text in the next line. The two lines will be joined together so that the + signs are squeezed out, e.g.,

TITLE = "Analysis of medical+

 + research data"

is interpreted as

TITLE = "Analysis of medical research data"


Continuation lines "+" are helpful to make control files fit on your screen.


CODES = 01020304+



is interpreted as

CODES = 0102030405060708


To comment out a continuation line:

; CODES = 01020304+

; +05060708


3. The control variables may be listed in any order.


4. Character strings must be enclosed in 'single quotes' or "double quotes" when they contain blanks, e.g.,

TITLE="Rasch Analysis of Test Responses"


TITLE='Rasch Analysis of Test Responses'

Quotes are not required for single words containing no blanks, e.g. PFILE=kctpf.txt


5. The control variables may be in upper or lower case or mixed,

e.g., Pfile = Person.txt


6. Blanks before or after control variables, and before or after equal signs are ignored, e.g.

TITLE="Test Report"


TITLE = "Test Report"

are equally correct.


7. Commas at the end of lines are ignored, so equally correct are:

  NAME1 = 33,


  NAME1 = 33


8. Control variables can be made into comments, and so be ignored, by entering a semi-colon in column 1, e.g.

 ; FITP=3 is ignored


9. When all control variables (required or optional) have been assigned values,

type &END (in upper or lower case) on the next line, e.g.,

Title ="A 30 Item test"

NI = 30

 ; this is a comment: person names in columns 1-20.

ITEM1= 21



10. Values may be expressions, with no internal spaces

USCALE = 2*10  ; 20

Help for Winsteps Rasch Measurement Software: Author: John Michael Linacre

The Languages of Love: draw a map of yours!

For more information, contact or use the Contact Form

Facets Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download
Winsteps Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download

State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
Rasch, Winsteps, Facets online Tutorials


Forum Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic

Click here to add your email address to the Winsteps and Facets email list for notifications.

Click here to ask a question or make a suggestion about Winsteps and Facets software.

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups



Coming Winsteps & Facets Events
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz),
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France.,
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences"
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),



Our current URL is

Winsteps® is a registered trademark

John "Mike" L.'s Wellness Report: I'm 72, take no medications and, March 2018, my doctor is annoyed with me - I'm too healthy!
According to Wikipedia, the human body requires about 30 minerals, maybe more. There are 60 naturally-occurring minerals in the liquid Mineral Supplement which I take daily.