For judged ratings, paired comparisons and complex ordinal data structures...


Many-Facets Rasch Measurement - MFRM - software for Rasch Analysis

64-bit version: Facets 4.1.8, June 2024, Windows Vista to Windows 11 compatible.

32-bit version: Facets 3.87.0, November 2023, Windows XP to Windows 11 compatible.

Buy Facets now.

Mac, Linux,Chrome OS: Winsteps and Facets run under Windows installed on the target hardware using special-purpose software.

Facets is 64-bit or 32-bit Windows software. Please check compatibility by downloading and running the free student/evaluation/demo version, Minifac - same as Facets but limited to 2,000 data points.

Get started with Facets Tutorial PDFs

Free, Windows-native, evaluation/student version of FACETS, called MINIFAC. Contains all features except limited to 2,000 data points (responses). Please copy, distribute and use.

Capacity of full version of Facets: over 1,600,000 elements (persons + items + raters + tasks + ....), up to 2 billion observations, tested to 250 million

Winsteps vs. Facets comparison

Customer support policy and user comments.

Facets users and site license holders

List of citations to Facets in scholarly Papers

Facets installation problems?

Facets Probability Graph
Click here for bigger picture.

Facform, free data-formatter for Facets

Our recommendation: use EXCEL etc. instead

  1. Freeware Facform data formatter Download FacformInstall.exe

Facets & Facform User Manuals and On-Line Help

  1. Get started with Facets Tutorial PDFs

  2. Go to Facets 64-bit Online Help

  3. Go to Facets 32-bit Online Help

  4. Go to Facform Online Help for Facets data formatter

  5. Facets 32-bit User Manual PDF Download Facets-ManualPDF.sip.
  6. Facets 64-bit User Manual PDF Download Facets64-ManualPDF.sip.
  7. Facform User Manual PDF Download Facform-Manual.pdf.


Staff of Suzann Campbell's baby-measuring project. Mike Linacre is top center. See RMT 10:2.

Cover of McNamara: Measuring Second Language Performance
Useful for all Facets users: "Measuring Second Language Performance" by T. F. McNamara, Addison-Wesley Longman, 1996. Available from
Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement by Thomas Eckes (2011), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
The book "Many-Facet Rasch Measurement" by John M. Linacre, Chicago: MESA Press, 1992, is available from

Go to Example of Facets Output

Facets Features
Facets Features

Facets is designed to handle applications of unidimensional many-facets Rasch measurement from the simple to the really tough. It constructs measures from complex data involving combinations of different facets, such as examinees, items, tasks, judges along with further measurement and structural facets. It is designed to handle combinations of items of different formats in one analysis. Item types include dichotomies, rating scales with up to 255 categories, Poisson counts and Bernoulli trials. Multiple different measurement models can be included in the same analysis, including paired-comparisons, rank-order, Likert and other rating scales, partial credit, and dichotomizations, all involving from 1 to 255 facets. For instance, two-facet person-item multiple-choice questions can be included in the same analysis as four-facet person-rater-task-item ratings. Measures can also be fixed (anchored) individually or by group mean, facilitating equating and linking across test sessions. Quality-control fit evaluation of all measures is provided. Unexpected data points are identified. Bias, differential item functioning and interactions can be measured. Weighting schemes can be implemented. Up to 4 million individual elements, such as examinees, raters, etc., can be included in one analysis. Typical applications have over 90% missing data. Multiple observations are allowed in each cell of the data matrix. Facets has been used successfully to construct measures for language testing, medical staff performance, patient performance, public speaking, sports performance by individuals and teams, and consumer preferences. Training courses are held regularly. Student/evaluation/demo versions of Facets, called Minifac, can be downloaded free from

Go to recent enhancements, changes and bug fixes to Facets.

Description of FACETS program

This program extends the objective measurement principles of Georg Rasch beyond conventional tests and attitude surveys into more complex areas such as judged performances, and sub-tests of items replicated across tasks. Facets has already been applied in many areas including Drama Competition, Laboratory Technician Certification, Handicapped Patient Assessment, Stain Resistance of Paints, Public Speaking Competence, Graduate-School Candidate Selection, Teacher Assessment and Essay Grading.

Judged tests can be analyzed: Facets can analyze the ratings awarded by judges to examinees who are being tested on their performance on a number of different skill items for each of several tasks. The choice of judging design is yours: from complete designs in which every judge rates every examinee, to minimal designs in which any judge only rates a few of the examinees on a few of the items. The only constraint is that there be enough overlap or rotation in the judging design to enable each parameter to be uniquely positioned within one overall frame of reference.

Heterogeneous tests can be analyzed together: Not only can Facets perform analyses as diverse as dichotomous responses and judge- awarded ratings, but Facets can process them together simultaneously in one analysis to estimate one ability measure for each examinee.

Mathematical flexibility: The analyst specifies to Facets the number of facets in the data, and, for each facet, its name and the names of all the parameters included in the facet. The analyst also specifies the form of the measurement model which represents the way in which the facets interacted to produce the observations, and which observations apply to a given model, so that multiple measurement models can be used simultaneously in one analysis. For a complex judged test, the measurement model could be equivalent to:

log(Pnmijk / Pnmijk-1) = Bn - Am - Di - Cj - Fk

where Bn = ability of examinee n, Am = difficulty of task m, Di = difficulty of skill item i, Cj = severity of judge J, Fk = difficulty of category k relative to category k-1, Pnmijk = probability of rating of k under these circumstances, Pnmijk-1 = probability of rating of k-1

Winsteps® is a registered trademark

FACETS operational flowchart

Go to Top of Page
Go to Winsteps & Facets home Page

Everything by download
Software download link sent by email
User Guide (PDF)
One year of free updates by download
Purchase on-line by credit card
Facets $149.
Winsteps $149.

Burn your own back-up CD-ROM
or add for back-up CD-ROM
uses original installation password
+ $10. (or so)
optional CD-ROM
Wire transfers, etc.+ Additional fees apply.
Multi-user site license detailsPersonal-circle: $499.
Institution-wide: $2,250.
If desired: Print your own User Manual from free PDF files: (also included in software downloads)
download Winsteps PDF file now
download Facets PDF file now
Download free student/evaluation versions, MINISTEP and MINIFAC, to check out software features.
Free update period expired?
Download current software
& further updates free by download for two years
Please email Mike Linacre, author of Winsteps: mike \at/ to obtain renewal/update procedure
Link to full End-User License Agreement
State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
Rasch, Winsteps, Facets online Tutorials


Facets Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation Minifac download
Winsteps Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation Ministep download

Rasch Books and Publications: Winsteps and Facets
Applying the Rasch Model (Winsteps, Facets) 4th Ed., Bond, Yan, Heene Advances in Rasch Analyses in the Human Sciences (Winsteps, Facets) 1st Ed., Boone, Staver Advances in Applications of Rasch Measurement in Science Education, X. Liu & W. J. Boone Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences (Winsteps) Boone, Staver, Yale Appliquer le modèle de Rasch: Défis et pistes de solution (Winsteps) E. Dionne, S. Béland
Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (Facets), Thomas Eckes Rasch Models for Solving Measurement Problems (Facets), George Engelhard, Jr. & Jue Wang Statistical Analyses for Language Testers (Facets), Rita Green Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments (Facets), George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Aplicação do Modelo de Rasch (Português), de Bond, Trevor G., Fox, Christine M
Exploring Rating Scale Functioning for Survey Research (R, Facets), Stefanie Wind Rasch Measurement: Applications, Khine Winsteps Tutorials - free
Facets Tutorials - free
Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (Facets) - free, J.M. Linacre Fairness, Justice and Language Assessment (Winsteps, Facets), McNamara, Knoch, Fan
Other Rasch-Related Resources: Rasch Measurement YouTube Channel
Rasch Measurement Transactions & Rasch Measurement research papers - free An Introduction to the Rasch Model with Examples in R (eRm, etc.), Debelak, Strobl, Zeigenfuse Rasch Measurement Theory Analysis in R, Wind, Hua Applying the Rasch Model in Social Sciences Using R, Lamprianou El modelo métrico de Rasch: Fundamentación, implementación e interpretación de la medida en ciencias sociales (Spanish Edition), Manuel González-Montesinos M.
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Rasch Models for Measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Best Test Design - free, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis - free, Wright & Masters
Virtual Standard Setting: Setting Cut Scores, Charalambos Kollias Diseño de Mejores Pruebas - free, Spanish Best Test Design A Course in Rasch Measurement Theory, Andrich, Marais Rasch Models in Health, Christensen, Kreiner, Mesba Multivariate and Mixture Distribution Rasch Models, von Davier, Carstensen
As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This does not change what you pay.

facebook Forum: Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic

To receive News Emails about Winsteps and Facets by subscribing to the email list,
enter your email address here:

I want to Subscribe: & click below
I want to Unsubscribe: & click below

Please set your SPAM filter to accept emails from
The email list is only used to email information about Winsteps, Facets and associated Rasch Measurement activities. Your email address is not shared with third-parties. Every email sent from the list includes the option to unsubscribe.

Questions, Suggestions? Want to update Winsteps or Facets? Please email Mike Linacre, author of Winsteps

State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
Rasch, Winsteps, Facets online Tutorials

Coming Rasch-related Events: Winsteps and Facets
June 21 - July 19, 2024, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
Aug. 9 - Sept. 6, 2024, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Oct. 4 - Nov. 8, 2024, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
Jan. 17 - Feb. 21, 2025, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
May 16 - June 20, 2025, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 20 - July 18, 2025, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Facets),
Oct. 3 - Nov. 7, 2025, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),


Our current URL is

Winsteps® is a registered trademark

The URL of this page is