Facform provides a flexible method of obtaining the values of numbers and names by means of expressions. Expression evaluation is done as follows:
Quoted text. A value in quotes is a constant character value, e.g., "Mary"
number (numeric value)
A value comprising digits, with or without a decimal point, is a constant numeric value, e.g., 23.4
+-*/^ (plus, minus, times, divide, exponent)
+ (plus), - (minus), * (multiply), / (divide), ^ (to the power of) are numeric operators. These are used in the evaluation of numeric quantities, e.g., 23+45 evaluates to 68.
+ (plus) is used to put together, concatenate, character text.
E.g., "George"+" D. "+"Washington" evaluates to "George D. Washington".
><= (greater, less, equal)
> (greater than), < (less than), = (equal to), >= (greater than or equal to), <= (less than or equal to), <> (not equal to) are used to compare values.
For numeric values, 23>12 yields the result of "true", or 1 as a numeric value. 23<12 yields the result of "false", or 0 as a numeric value.
For character values, "B">"A" yields the result of 1, meaning "true". "B"<"A" yields the result of 0 = "false", or 0 as a numeric value. Before character comparison, leading and trailing blanks are removed, e.g., "A "=" A" is true, but "AB"="A B" is false, because of the blanks between A and B.
&| (and, or)
& (logical and), | (logical or) are used to combine numeric values, or the numeric outcome of <,>,=. A & B is 0 if either A or B or both are 0. A | B is 1 if either A or B or both are 1.
E.g., (A>1) & (B=0) evaluates to 0 if A is less than 1, or B is not zero.
(A=B) | (A=C) evaluates to 1 if A is equal to B or C, otherwise it is 0.
( ) (arrange order of expression evaluation)
Parentheses are used to set the order in which sub-expressions are evaluated. Evaluation proceeds from the inner-most sub-expression within parentheses outward. Otherwise, evaluation proceeds from left to right.
E.g., ((2+3)*(3+4)) evaluates to (5*(3+4)), then (5*7), then 35.
1+2*3 is evaluated left to right as (1+2)*3, then 3*3, then 9.
Help for Facform Rasch Measurement Software: www.winsteps.com. Author: John Michael Linacre
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|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Winsteps Tutorials||Facets Tutorials||Rasch Discussion Groups|
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|Jan. 5 - Feb. 2, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 10-16, 2018, Wed.-Tues.||In-person workshop: Advanced Course in Rasch Measurement Theory and the application of RUMM2030, Perth, Australia (D. Andrich), Announcement|
|Jan. 17-19, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Rasch Conference: Seventh International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement, Matilda Bay Club, Perth, Australia, Website|
|Jan. 22-24, 2018, Mon-Wed.||In-person workshop: Rasch Measurement for Everybody en español (A. Tristan, Winsteps), San Luis Potosi, Mexico. www.ieia.com.mx|
|April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs.||Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY, www.iomw.org|
|April 13-17, 2018, Fri.-Tues.||AERA, New York, NY, www.aera.net|
|May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur.||EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz), https://ealta2018.testdaf.de|
|May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France., https://measurement2018.sciencesconf.org|
|June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences" www.promsociety.org|
|Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs.||IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland www.imeko2018.org|
|Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
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