Facform stops prematurely: Problem messages

These are displayed on your screen. They are listed here in alphabetical order.


$AGAIN invalid format

$AGAIN cannot be followed by a value, i.e., $AGAIN=3 is invalid. Loop activity is controlled by $DO=.


$DO invalid format

The expected formats are of the form $DO=5 or $DO=(4+L) or $DO=(Item<20). Other formats such as $DO=2,3 are invalid.


$DO problem

Facform failure processing loops. Contact us.


$ELSE invalid format

$ELSE cannot be followed by a value. $IF controls conditional processing.


$ELSEIF invalid format

$ELSEIF=Expression is valid. $ELSEIF alone or $ELSEIF=A,B are invalid.


$ENDIF invalid format

$ENDIF cannot be followed by a value. $IF controls conditional processing.


$IF invalid format

$IF=Expression is valid. $IF alone or $IF=A,B are invalid.


$IF or $ELSEIF Problem

Facform failure processing $IF= or $ELSEIF=. Contact us.


Both Width and End

$S23W6E28 is invalid. Use either $S23W6 or $S23E28.


Commands start with $ Variable names with A-Z

Commands are keywords like $OUTPUT. Variable names are like AB23. Statements like %#^=23 are invalid.


Data failure: second pass

Either the data file was changed during Facform operation, or Facform has failed. Contact us.


Dataform failure

Facform failure constructing Facets record. Contact us.


Duplicate <<

23<<Itemnum is invalid. Do you mean: 23<Itemnum


Duplicate ==

$IF=(Item==23) is invalid. Do you mean: $IF=(Item=23)


Duplicate >>

23>>Itemnum is invalid. Do you mean: 23>Itemnum


End position ___ less than Start position ___

$S99E50 is invalid because the field ends to the left of its start position..


Expected format is: keyword = value

A value is missing for a keyword that requires one, e.g., $Output=


Facet number outside range 1 thru ___: ___

A facet number is out of range given by $Facets=, e.g., $Facets=3, then $Flabel=999,Examinees


File name contains * or ?

File names cannot contain "*" or "?" characters.


File not found

A $Input of $Spinput file could not be found with the name you specified. Did you mistype the name or is it in a different directory?


Format must be $LABEL = facet number, element number, element name, ...

$LABEL=1 lacks an element number and/or element name.


Format must be $RATING = value

$Rating=value is required, not $Rating= or $Rating=2,3 (indicating two values)


Integer not between 32767 and -32768

A value is to be calculated that is out of range.


Invalid character field operator

"George "-"Washington" is invalid. Use "George "+"Washington"


Invalid element ordinal number

$LABEL=2,"Martha" should be $LABEL=2,23 or $LABEL=2,,"Martha"


Invalid leading operator

\3 has no clear meaning.


Invalid replicate value

R3,1,1,1 is valid. RTHREE,1,1,1 is invalid.


Invalid trailing operator

3* has no clear meaning.


Keyword or Variable name expected

=23 is missing its keyword or variable name.


Label not found

The element name or number are not known. If $Given was specified, a new label has been found in the $Input file. Otherwise there is a Facform problem. Contact us.


Mismatch on element numbers

Facform is assigning element numbers to labels, but finds ambiguous information. For instance, $Label=1,3,"Fred" and $Label=1,42,"Fred" and then $Label=1,,"Fred"

Is this "Fred" Person 3 or Person 42?


Missing equals (=) sign in command line

The DOS Command line can have only two terms without = signs: the keyword file and the output file. Did you put in extra blanks with other keywords, e.g. $Print = 23 instead of $PRINT=23


Missing Width or End

$S23 is not enough. Specify $S23W1 or $S23E23.


More than ___ elements. Reduce the size of your data.

Your specifications and data combine to generate too many elements. Reduce the size of your data or the number of facets.


More than ___ labels. Reduce the number of labels.

Only specify labels, and extra information, to Facform for those elements that must have them for identification. Instead, use element numbers, such as line numbers, $L.


Multiple decimal points

Values such as 23..45 are invalid. Just use 23.45


No element defined in facet position __

You listed $RATING= before establishing the current element in each of the facets. Use $Label=2,0 if, say, facet 2 has no element number.


No format keywords

You listed no keywords that reformat the data. Is this the correct keyword file?


No keyword before = sign in command line

Did you include extra blanks on the DOS command line? There is an = sign preceded by a blank, e.g., C:>FACFORM KEYFILE $FACETS  =  3, instead of C:>FACFORM KEYFILE $FACETS=3


No unformatted data to input.

No useable data found in the data file. Did you specify the right files?


No valid $Facets=? keyword

No $FACETS= keyword has been found.


No valid $OUTPUT keyword

No $OUTPUT= keyword has been found. Did you intend to specify an output file on the DOS command line?


Non-numeric in numeric field

$FACETS=23A4 is an example of mixing numbers and other characters in a numeric field. Specify $I(23A4) is you want 23A4 to have the value 23.


Not enough $AGAIN and $ENDIF keywords by __

There are more $DO and $IF keywords than $AGAIN and $ENDIF. Check that they pair up correctly.


Operator expected

"George " "Washington" requires some operator, e.g., + between its two expressions, e.g., "George "+"Washington"


Sort loop error

Facform failure sorting labels. Contact us.


Start position ___ less than 1

$SxxW1 counts in columns, not displacement. $S00W1 defines 0 as the start position, but the smallest allowable value is column 1, $S01W1


Too much extra element information. Reduce its size.

Extra information is the third entry in the $LABEL= specification. Reduce this.


Too much label information. Reduce the size of labels.

Use the minimum label length, and only those required for identification.


Unexpected characters after ___

An expression command such as $LXY has been specified instead of just $L for the current line number.


Unexpected keyword

A keyword like $ZZZ has been specified, which Facform can"t interpret.


Unknown $ expression-command, must be one of $A,$C,$G,$I,$L,$N,$Q,$S,$T,$U

An unknown command, such as $D, has been specified in an expression.


Unknown or too abbreviated keyword

Facform can"t disambiguate a keyword like $SP= that could mean $SPinput= or $SPoutput= or $SPec=


Unknown variable name: ___

You used a variable before giving it a value. Thus, specifying $LABEL=1,Itemnum stating Itemnum=1


Unmatched $AGAIN

There is no $DO= to pair with this $AGAIN


Unmatched $DO - $AGAIN

The $DO= and $AGAIN= do not pair up correctly.


Unmatched $ELSE

There is no $IF= available with which to pair this $ELSE


Unmatched $ENDIF

There is no $IF= available with which to pair this $ENDIF


Unmatched $IF - $ELSE

The $IF= and $ELSE= do not pair up correctly.


Unmatched $IF - $ENDIF

The $IF= and $ENDIF= do not pair up correctly.


Unmatched (

There is a missing ), e..g., (23


Unmatched )

There is a missing (, e.g., 23)


Unmatched character field

A character field and a numeric field are being paired up, e.g., "ABC"+23

or a character field is missing.


Unmatched quote

A quote is missing, e.g., "Math Test


Valid facet range is 1 thru ___. You specified __

Facets such as 0 or 999 are out of range.


Variable names can only comprise A-Z and 0-9

%12$ = 99 defines an invalid variable name. P12D=99 is valid.


Variables must be of format name = expression

Item= is missing its value.


Vstack format failure: ___

Facform failure processing variable values. Contact us.

Help for Facform Rasch Measurement Software: www.winsteps.com. Author: John Michael Linacre

For more information, contact info@winsteps.com or use the Contact Form

Facets Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download
Winsteps Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download

State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
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Forum Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic

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Click here to ask a question or make a suggestion about Winsteps and Facets software.

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups


Coming Rasch-related Events
April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs. Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY, www.iomw.org
April 13-17, 2018, Fri.-Tues. AERA, New York, NY, www.aera.net
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz), https://ealta2018.testdaf.de
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France., https://measurement2018.sciencesconf.org
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences" www.promsociety.org
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com
Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs. IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland www.imeko2018.org
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com

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