Essays.txt: 4 facet rating scale with bias analysis: Essays

A carefully conducted grading of English essays written for the Advanced Placement Program was conducted by H.I. Braun (Understanding score reliability: Experiments in calibrating essay readers. Journal of Educational Statistics, Spring 1988, 13/1, 1-18). The four facets are examinee, essay topic, reader, and grading session. In this analysis, bias interactions between essay topic and reader are reported. Also interactions are reported for reader by grading session, which is entered as a "dummy" facet, with all elements anchored at 0.


Facets specifications and data (in file Essays.txt):


; this is file essays.txt

title = AP English Essays (College Board/ETS)

convergence = 0.1 ; size of largest remaining marginal score residual at convergence

unexpected = 3.0 ; size of smallest standardized residual to report

arrange = M ; arrange output tables in Measure ascending order

facets = 4 ; there are 4 facets in this analysis

noncenter = 1 ; examinee facet floats

positive = 1 ; for examinees, greater score = greater measure

Inter-rater = 3 ; facet 3 is the rater facet

usort = 2,3,1 ; sort residuals by 2=Essay, 3=Reader, 1=Examinee


?,?B,?B,?,R9 ; observations are ratings in range 1-9.

  ; look for interaction/bias between reader and essay type

?,?,?B,?B,R9 ; look for rater x grading session interaction 




 1-32 ; 32 otherwise anonymous examinees



 1,A ; 3 essays





 1-12 ; 12 otherwise anonymous readers


4,Session,A ; this is a dummy facet, used only for investigating interactions

 11,day 1 time 1 ,0 ; 8 sessions - all anchored at 0

 12,day 1 time 2 ,0

 21,day 2 time 1 ,0

 22,day 2 time 2 ,0

 31,day 3 time 1 ,0

 32,day 3 time 2 ,0

 41,day 4 time 1 ,0

 42,day 4 time 2 ,0


data =

05,1,1,11,4 ; first rating: examinee 5, essay 1, reader 1, session 11, rating of 4

 | ; more data

09,1,1,11,3 ; last rating

Help for Facets Rasch Measurement Software: Author: John Michael Linacre.

The Languages of Love: draw a map of yours!

For more information, contact or use the Contact Form

Facets Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download
Winsteps Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download

State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
Rasch, Winsteps, Facets online Tutorials


Forum Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic

Click here to add your email address to the Winsteps and Facets email list for notifications.

Click here to ask a question or make a suggestion about Winsteps and Facets software.

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups


Coming Winsteps & Facets Events
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz),
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France.,
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences"
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),


Our current URL is

Winsteps® is a registered trademark

John "Mike" L.'s Wellness Report: I'm 72, take no medications and, March 2018, my doctor is annoyed with me - I'm too healthy!
According to Wikipedia, the human body requires about 30 minerals, maybe more. There are 60 naturally-occurring minerals in the liquid Mineral Supplement which I take daily.