Data from Excel and other spreadsheets

When possible, use the technique described at Data from Excel files. But it is straight-forward to copy data from an Excel spreadsheet into a Winsteps data file.


(i) Organize your data.

Transform all item responses into columns one or two columns wide, e.g., "1" or "23"

Transform all demographics into columns, one column wide, e.g., "M" and "F" for male and female.


(ii) Organize your Excel spread sheet.

Put all item responses (one item per column) into one block to the left of your spreadsheet.

Put all person identifiers (one item per column) into one block, immediately to the right of the last item column.


(iii) Organize your column widths.

Make all item column widths the same (usually one or two columns).

Person identifier widths can match the identifiers, but these are best at one column wide.


(iv) Replace missing data with "*" or "." or "-"

Global replace nothing in a cell with a convenient clear missing data indicator, which is not a number.


(v) Use the Excel format function to inset leading zeroes etc.

Select the item columns, then

Format - Cells - Custom

and enter 0 for 1 character wide columns, 00 for 2 character-wide columns, etc.


(vi) Select all cells.


(vii) Copy into clipboard (Ctrl+C), or write to a tab-delimited file

or "Save as" a "Formatted Text (space delimited) (*.prn)" file (respond No to next dialog box)



The data has been saved in the .prn format. This is a txt file.


To the "Keep" question: respond No:



To the "Save As" question, respond "Microsoft Excel Workbook", "Save"



(viii) Open Notepad or your own text editor.

Paste (Ctrl+V) or open the tab-delimited file.


(ix) Removing tabs

Highlight a tab (area between two columns)

Copy (Ctrl+C)

Replace all tabs: (Ctrl+V) tab if necessary with nothing.


(x) The file should now look like a standard Winsteps rectangular data file.

Save as a text file.


To obtain a data matrix like this from Excel:
1. Set the Excel column widths so that the Excel matrix looks like this.
2. "Save As" the matrix as "Formatted Text (Space delimited) (*.prn)"

Help for Winsteps Rasch Measurement Software: Author: John Michael Linacre

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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups



Coming Rasch-related Events
April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs. Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY,
April 13-17, 2018, Fri.-Tues. AERA, New York, NY,
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz),
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France.,
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences"
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs. IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),



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