For judged ratings and complex ordinal data structures...


Many-Facet Rasch Analysis

Current version: Facets 3.80.4, enhancements, bug-fixes, March 2018, Windows 10 compatible. Purchase from SWREG

Windows-native, but please check compatibility with your version of Windows, by installing the free student/evaluation/demo version. (Can run under Virtual-PC, Wine, etc. on the Mac.)

Get started with Facets Tutorial PDFs

Free, Windows-native, evaluation/student version of FACETS, called MINIFAC. Contains all features except limited to 2,000 data points (responses). Please copy, distribute and use.

Capacity of full version of Facets: over 1,600,000 elements (persons + items + raters + tasks + ....), up to 2 billion observations, tested to 250 million

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List of citations to Facets in scholarly Papers

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Facform, free data-formatter for Facets

Our recommendation: use EXCEL etc. instead

  1. Freeware Facform data formatter Download FacformInstall.exe

Facets & Facform User Manuals On-Line

  1. Get started with Facets Tutorial PDFs
  2. Go to Facets Online Help
  3. Go to Facform Online Help for Facets data formatter
  4. Free Facets User Manual PDF Download Facets-Manual.pdf
  5. Free Facform User Manual PDF Download Facform-Manual.pdf


Staff of Suzann Campbell's baby-measuring project. Mike Linacre is top center. See RMT 10:2.

Cover of McNamara: Measuring Second Language Performance
Useful for all Facets users: "Measuring Second Language Performance" by T. F. McNamara, Addison-Wesley Longman, 1996. Available from Barnes & Noble. or
Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement by Thomas Eckes (2011), Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
The book "Many-Facet Rasch Measurement" by John M. Linacre, Chicago: MESA Press, 1992, is available from

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Facets Features
Facets Features

Facets is designed to handle applications of unidimensional many-facets Rasch measurement from the simple to the really tough. It constructs measures from complex data involving combinations of different facets, such as examinees, items, tasks, judges along with further measurement and structural facets. It is designed to handle combinations of items of different formats in one analysis. Item types include dichotomies, rating scales with up to 255 categories, Poisson counts and Bernoulli trials. Multiple different measurement models can be included in the same analysis, including paired-comparisons, rank-order, Likert and other rating scales, partial credit, and dichotomizations, all involving from 1 to 255 facets. For instance, two-facet person-item multiple-choice questions can be included in the same analysis as four-facet person-rater-task-item ratings. Measures can also be fixed (anchored) individually or by group mean, facilitating equating and linking across test sessions. Quality-control fit evaluation of all measures is provided. Unexpected data points are identified. Bias, differential item functioning and interactions can be measured. Weighting schemes can be implemented. Up to 4 million individual elements, such as examinees, raters, etc., can be included in one analysis. Typical applications have over 90% missing data. Multiple observations are allowed in each cell of the data matrix. Facets has been used successfully to construct measures for language testing, medical staff performance, patient performance, public speaking, sports performance by individuals and teams, and consumer preferences. Training courses are held regularly. Student/evaluation/demo versions of Facets, called Minifac, can be downloaded free from

Go to recent enhancements, changes and bug fixes to Facets.

Description of FACETS program

This program extends the objective measurement principles of Georg Rasch beyond conventional tests and attitude surveys into more complex areas such as judged performances, and sub-tests of items replicated across tasks. Facets has already been applied in many areas including Drama Competition, Laboratory Technician Certification, Handicapped Patient Assessment, Stain Resistance of Paints, Public Speaking Competence, Graduate-School Candidate Selection, Teacher Assessment and Essay Grading.

Judged tests can be analyzed: Facets can analyze the ratings awarded by judges to examinees who are being tested on their performance on a number of different skill items for each of several tasks. The choice of judging design is yours: from complete designs in which every judge rates every examinee, to minimal designs in which any judge only rates a few of the examinees on a few of the items. The only constraint is that there be enough overlap or rotation in the judging design to enable each parameter to be uniquely positioned within one overall frame of reference.

Heterogeneous tests can be analyzed together: Not only can Facets perform analyses as diverse as dichotomous responses and judge- awarded ratings, but Facets can process them together simultaneously in one analysis to estimate one ability measure for each examinee.

Mathematical flexibility: The analyst specifies to Facets the number of facets in the data, and, for each facet, its name and the names of all the parameters included in the facet. The analyst also specifies the form of the measurement model which represents the way in which the facets interacted to produce the observations, and which observations apply to a given model, so that multiple measurement models can be used simultaneously in one analysis. For a complex judged test, the measurement model could be equivalent to:

log(Pnmijk / Pnmijk-1) = Bn - Am - Di - Cj - Fk

where Bn = ability of examinee n, Am = difficulty of task m, Di = difficulty of skill item i, Cj = severity of judge J, Fk = difficulty of category k relative to category k-1, Pnmijk = probability of rating of k under these circumstances, Pnmijk-1 = probability of rating of k-1

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FACETS operational flowchart

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Facets $149.
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Burn your own back-up CD-ROM
or add for back-up CD-ROM
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+ $10. (or so)
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Wire transfers, etc.+ Additional fees apply.
Multi-user site license detailsPersonal-circle: $499.
Institution-wide: $2,250.
If desired: Print your own User Manual from free PDF files: (also included in software downloads)
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Download free student/evaluation versions, MINISTEP and MINIFAC, to check out software features.
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State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
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Facets Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download
Winsteps Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download

State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
Rasch, Winsteps, Facets online Tutorials


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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups


Coming Winsteps & Facets Events
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz),
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France.,
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences"
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),


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