Please cite the current Winsteps computer program as:


Linacre, J. M. (2017). Winsteps® Rasch measurement computer program. Beaverton, Oregon:


For this User's Guide, the citation is:


Linacre, J. M. (2017). Winsteps® Rasch measurement computer program User's Guide. Beaverton, Oregon:


APA Style:

Linacre, J.M. (2017). Winsteps® (Version 3.93.0) [Computer Software]. Beaverton, Oregon: Retrieved January 1, 2017. Available from


RSA means Wright B.D. & Masters G.N. Rating Scale Analysis, Chicago: MESA Press, 1982, especially p. 100:

BTD means Wright B.D. & Stone M.H. Best Test Design, Chicago: MESA Press, 1979:


Other recommended sources:

Rasch Measurement Transactions:

Journal of Applied Measurement:

"Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences", by Trevor G. Bond & Christine M. Fox, 2001. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. 0-8058-3476-1. Authors' website. Using Winsteps: Bond & Fox examples

"Introduction to Rasch Measurement", Everett V. Smith, Jr. & Richard M. Smith (Eds.) JAM Press, 2004

Rasch, G. (1960). Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests (Reprint, with Foreword and Afterword by B. D. Wright, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980). Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Paedogogiske Institut.

Some Rasch papers available online:

For quick access to online papers, Google "+Winsteps +Rasch +Linacre filetype:pdf" - as of November 2009, this produced 2,290 hits. Constructing and Evaluating Measures: Applications of the Rasch Measurement Model Validation of Authentic Performance Assessment: A Process Suited for Rasch Modeling Test Equating by Common Items and Common Subjects: Concepts and Applications How entrance examination scores can inform more than just admission decisions (skip the short section in Japanese).


Other Winsteps references (please submit yours if you want it listed here):

Peeters M.J., Stone G.E. (2009). An instrument to objectively measure pharmacist professionalism as an outcome: a pilot study. Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 62(3), 209-16.

Help for Winsteps Rasch Measurement Software: Author: John Michael Linacre

For more information, contact or use the Contact Form

Facets Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download
Winsteps Rasch measurement software. Buy for $149. & site licenses. Freeware student/evaluation download

State-of-the-art : single-user and site licenses : free student/evaluation versions : download immediately : instructional PDFs : user forum : assistance by email : bugs fixed fast : free update eligibility : backwards compatible : money back if not satisfied
Rasch, Winsteps, Facets online Tutorials


Forum Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic

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Click here to ask a question or make a suggestion about Winsteps and Facets software.

Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
in Spanish: Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez
Winsteps Tutorials Facets Tutorials Rasch Discussion Groups



Coming Rasch-related Events
April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs. Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY,
April 13-17, 2018, Fri.-Tues. AERA, New York, NY,
May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz),
May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
June 27 - 29, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Measurement at the Crossroads: History, philosophy and sociology of measurement, Paris, France.,
June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),
July 25 - July 27, 2018, Wed.-Fri. Pacific-Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS), (Preconference workshops July 23-24, 2018) Fudan University, Shanghai, China "Applying Rasch Measurement in Language Assessment and across the Human Sciences"
Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets),
Sept. 3 - 6, 2018, Mon.-Thurs. IMEKO World Congress, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri. On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps),



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