NEWSCORE= recoding values (with RESCORE=)

NEWSCORE= says which values must replace the original codes when RESCORE= is used. If XWIDE=1 (the standard), use one column per code. If XWIDE=2, use two columns per code. The length of the NEWSCORE= string must match the length of the CODES= string. For examples, see RESCORE=. NEWSCORE= is ignored when KEYn= is specified.


The responses in your data file may not be coded as you desire. The responses to some or all of the items can be rescored or keyed using RESCORE=. RESCORE= and NEWSCORE= are ignored when KEYn= is specified, except as below.


RESCORE=" " or 2 or is omitted

All items are recoded using NEWSCORE=. RESCORE=2 is the standard when NEWSCORE= is specified.


RESCORE= some combination of 1's and 0's

Only items corresponding to 1's are recoded with NEWSCORE= or scored with KEYn=. When KEYn= is specified, NEWSCORE= is ignored.


If some, but not all, items are to be recoded or keyed, assign a character string to RESCORE= in which "1" means "recode (key) the item", and "0" (or blank) means "do not recode (key) the item". The position of the "0" or "1" in the RESCORE= string must match the position of the item-response in the item-string.


Example 0: I want to collapse data, rating scale 1,2,3,4,5 6 to 0 through 3 is 0, 4 through 6 is 1

   CODES    = 123456

   NEWSCORE = 000111 ; the codes align vertically


Example 1: The original codes are "0" and "1". You want to reverse these codes, i.e., 1 0 and 0 1, for all items.

   XWIDE=1  one character wide responses (the standard)

   CODES =01  valid response codes are 0 and 1 (the standard)

   NEWSCORE=10  desired response scoring

   RESCORE=2  rescore all items - this line can be omitted


   NI = 100  100 ITEMS


   1-100 X  FOR ALL 100 ITEMS, reference is X


   Codes = 01  recode 01

   IVALUEX = 10  into 10


Example 2: Your data is coded "0" and "1". This is correct for all 10 items except for items 1 and 7 which have the reverse meaning, i.e. 1 0 and 0 1.

   NI=10  ten items

   CODES =01  the standard, shown here for clarity


(a) old method - which still works:

   NEWSCORE=10  revised scoring

   RESCORE=1000001000 only for items 1 and 7


(b) new method - recommended:

   IVALUE1 =10  revised scoring

   IVALUE0 =01  scoring unchanged, so this line can be omitted.

   IREFER    =1000001000 only for items 1 and 7


If XWIDE=2, use one or two columns per RESCORE= code, e.g., " 1" or "1 " mean recode (key). " 0" or "0 " mean do not recode (key).


Example 3: The original codes are " 0" and " 1". You want to reverse these codes, i.e., 1 0 and 0 1, for items 1 and 7 of a ten item test.

   NI    =10   ten items

   XWIDE =2   two characters wide

   CODES =  " 0 1"  original codes

   NEWSCORE=" 1 0"  new values

   RESCORE =" 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0" rescore items 1 & 7


Example 4: The original codes are "0", "1", and "2". You want 0 0, 1 1, and 2 1 for all items

   XWIDE=1  one character wide (standard)

   CODES =012  valid codes

   NEWSCORE=011  desired scoring


Example 5: The original codes are "0", "1", and "2". You want to make 0 2, 1 1, and 2 0, for even-numbered items in a twenty item test.

   NI=20   twenty items

   CODES =012  three valid codes

   NEWSCORE=210  desired scoring

   RESCORE=01010101010101010101 rescore "even" items


Example 6: The original codes are "0", "1", "2", "3" and some others. You want to make all non-specified codes into "0", but to treat codes of "2" as missing.

   CODES = 0123  four valid codes

   NEWSCORE= 01X3 response code 2 will be ignored

   MISSCORE=0  treat all invalid codes as 0


Example 7: The original codes are "0", "1", "2", "3". You want to rescore some items selectively using KEY1= and KEY2= and to leave the others unchanged - their data codes will be their rating values. For items 5 and 6, 0 0, 1 0, 2 1, 3 2; for item 7, 0 0, 1 0, 2 0, 3 1. Responses to other items are already entered correctly as 0, 1, 2, or 3.

   CODES =0123 valid codes

   RESCORE=0000111000 rescore items 5,6,7

   KEY1   =****223*** keyed for selected items

   KEY2   =****33X*** the X will be ignored

     ^ read these columns vertically

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