XWIDE= columns per response = 1

The number of columns taken up by each response in your data file (1 or 2 or more). If possible, enter your data one column per response. If there are two columns per response, make XWIDE=2. If your data includes responses entered in both 1 and 2 character-width formats, use FORMAT= to convert all to XWIDE=2 format. When XWIDE=2, these control variables require two columns per item or per response code: CODES=, KEYn=, KEYSCR=, NEWSCORE=, IVALUE=. Either 1 or XWIDE= columns can be used for RESCORE=, ISGROUPS=, RESCORE= and IREFER=


See Example 11, Item responses two characters wide.


Example 1: The responses are scanned into adjacent columns in the data records,

   XWIDE=1 ; Observations 1 column wide



Example 2: Each response is a rating on a rating scale from 1 to 10, and so requires two columns in the date record,

   XWIDE=2 ; 2 columns per datum

   CODES=010203040506070801011 ; 2 CHARACTERS FOR EACH OBSERVATION


   CODES=" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011" ; 2 CHARACTERS FOR EACH OBSERVATION


Example 3: Some responses take one column, and some two columns in the data record. Five items of 1-character width, code "a", "b", "c", or "d", then ten items of 2-character width, coded "AA", "BB", "CC", "DD". These are preceded by person-id of 30 characters.

 XWIDE=2 Format to two columns per response

 FORMAT=(30A1,5A1,10A2)  Name 30 characters, 5 1-chars, 10 2-chars

 CODES   ="a b c d AABBCCDD"  "a" becomes "a "

 NEWSCORE="1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 "  response values

 RESCORE=2    rescore all items

 NAME1=1    person id starts in column 1

 ITEM1=31    item responses start in column 31

 NI=15     15 items all now XWIDE=2


Example 4: Scores are entered as hundreds, but are to be analyzed as incrementing by 1

 XWIDE = 4

 CODES = " 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 9001000"

 STKEEP = No ; analyze the ascending scores as ordinal levels


For more examples, see CODES= and Decimal, percentage and contiuous data.

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Rasch Publications
Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online) Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online) Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox Best Test Design, Wright & Stone
Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes Invariant Measurement with Raters and Rating Scales: Rasch Models for Rater-Mediated Assessments, George Engelhard, Jr. & Stefanie Wind Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green
Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar Journal of Applied Measurement Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale
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April 10-12, 2018, Tues.-Thurs. Rasch Conference: IOMW, New York, NY, www.iomw.org
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May 22 - 24, 2018, Tues.-Thur. EALTA 2018 pre-conference workshop (Introduction to Rasch measurement using WINSTEPS and FACETS, Thomas Eckes & Frank Weiss-Motz), https://ealta2018.testdaf.de
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